17th centuryThe area known as Lynn was first settled in 1629 by Edmund Ingalls (d. 1648), followed by John Tarbox of Lancashire in 1631, whose descendants still reside in New England. The city was incorporated in 1631 as Saugus, the Nipmuck name for the area. The name Lynn was given to the area after King's Lynn, Norfolk, England, in honor of Samuel Whiting. A noteworthy colonist, Thomas Halsey left Lynn to settle the eastern end of Long Island and founded the town of Southampton New York. The Halsey House is the oldest frame house in the state of New York (1648), and along with the homestead it is open to the public and managed by the Southampton Colonial Society.
After Lynn's resettlement, many of its areas gradually separated into independent towns. Reading was created in 1644, Lynnfieldin 1782, Saugus in 1815, Swampscott in 1852, and Nahant in 1853. Lynn was incorporated as a city in 1850.
Colonial Lynn was a major part of the regional tannery and shoe-making industries that began in 1635. The boots worn byContinental Army soldiers during the Revolutionary War were made in Lynn. The shoe-making industry drove urban growth in Lynn into the early nineteenth century. This historic theme is reflected in the city seal, which features a colonial boot.
Thomas coatts, coats, coates arrived in Lynn about 1646. He had been born in England and , although much of the early colonies were puritans, Thomas is described as having no specific religious affiliation. In the early years Mass. was owned and governed by strict puritan laws which included the requirement to attend church regularly. In 1652 Thomas Coatts married Elizabeth Flud/flood/floyd in Lynn. Elizabeth was the daughter of Joseph Flood born in Stepney,Middlesex, England.
Joseph Flood was married to Jane West in Chreechurch, London England on Oct. 2,1621 They had 11 children, many of them born in England before they migrated to America. Joseph was a baker while living in England. Upon arriving in the colonies the Flood's first settled in Dorchester, Suffolk Co. Ma. While living there they were registered members of the Dorchester church. Their youngest child, Eleazer Flood was baptized there on March 3 , 1638. Shortly after the child was baptized the Floods moved their family to Lynn.
Joseph (you will find him listed as Joseph Flud, Joseph Flood and also in some places as Joseph Floyd. It is possible that in future generations the family took on Floyd as their last name) and Jane west Flood had the following children:
Elizabeth Flood Married Thomas Coatts
Obediah Flood 1631
Joseph Flood Died in England 7/13/1633
Abel flood ( no information available but did not appear on passenger list so assumed died in England before emigrating)
Elizabeth Flood died England 8/12/1624
Persis Flood Died England 1/5/1627
John Flood Died England 1/4/1627
John Flood Died England 2/2/1629
Caleb Flood Died England 9/9/1634
Eleazer Flood Born in Mass. Baptized in Dorchester Mass 3/3/1638.
Of their 11 children only 3 made the voyage to America and one was born on American soil. With so much loss it is not difficult to understand how they might have seen the trip as a new beginning, a way to put the pain of loss behind them and start fresh.
The Floods arrived in Boston aboard the Abigail in Oct. 1638. The following is the passenger list from that voyage:
Plymouth, England to Boston
October 8, 1635
The Abigail of London sailed from foreign ports, the last being Plymouth, England on June 4, 1635. She sailed with about 220 passengers aboard along with livestock. She arrived in Boston about October 8, 1635 with smallpox aboard.Richard Hackwell, master of AbigailColumns represent: given name, surname, age, occupation, country to which they belong, country which they intend to inhabit,
1* Robert Meares 43 husbandman Boston
2 Mrs. Elizabeth Meares 30
3 Samuel Meares 6
4 John Meares 3 mo
5 Thomas Buttolph 32 glover Boston
6 Mrs. Anne Buttolph 24
7 Ralph Mason 35 carpenter Saint Olave's Southwark Boston
8 Mrs. Anne Mason 35
9 Richard Mason 5
10 Samuel Mason 3
11 Susan Mason 1
12 John Winthrop 27
13 Mrs. Elizabeth Winthrop 19
14 Deane Winthrop II
15 Matthew Abdy II fisherman Boston
16 Edward Belcher 8 Boston
17 Elizabeth Epps 13
18 Mary Lyne 6
19 George Burden 24 tanner Boston
20 Edward Rainsforde 26 merchant Boston
21 Nathaniel Tilley 32 Little Minories, London Boston
22 William Tilley 28 Little Minories, London Boston
23* Ralph Root 50 Boston
24 Mary Root 15
25* Robert Sharpe 20 Braintree
26 Ralph Shepherd 29 tailor Dedham
27 Mrs. Thanks Shepherd 23
28 Sarah Shepherd 3
29 John Houghton Eaton Bray, Co. Dedham Bedford
30 Edward White 42 Cranbrook,Co. Dorch.,Kent
31 Mrs. Martha White 39
32 Martha White 10
33 Mary White 8
34 Joseph Fludd 45 baker Dorchester
35 Mrs. Jane Fludd 35
36 Elizabeth Fludd 9
37 Obadiah Fludd 4
38 Joseph Fludd 6 mo
39* Edmond Munnings 40 Denge,Co. Essex Dorchester
40 Mrs. Mary Munnings 30
41 Mary Munnings 9
42 Anna Munnings 6
43 Mahalaleel Munnings 3
44 Thomas Jones 40 Dorchester
45* Mrs. Ellen Jones 36
46* Isaac Jones 8
47* Hester Jones 6
48 Thomas Jones 3
49 Sarah Jones 3 mo
50 Henry Bullock 40 Saint Lawrence, Charlestown
51 Mrs. Susan Bullock 42
52 Henry Bullock 8
53 Mary Bullock 6
54 Thomas Bullock 2
55* Thomas Knower 33 clothier London Charlestown
56 Sarah Knower 7
57* Noel Knower 29 London Charlestown
58 Philip Drinker 39 potter Charlestown
59 Mrs. Elizabeth Drinker 32
60 Edward Drinker 12
61 John Drinker 8
62 George Hepborne 43 glover Southwark Charlestown
63 Mrs. Anne Hepborne 46
64 Rebecca Hepborne 10
65 Anna Hepborne 4
66 Joseph Borebank 24 servant
67 Joan Jordan 16 servant
68 William Fuller 25 Ipswich
69 Joseph Fuller 15
70 Robert Whitman 20 Little Minories, London Ipswich
71 John West 11 Ipswich
72 John Emerson 20 Scituate
73 Richard Carr 29 Salibury
74 Hugh Burt 35 Dorking,Co. Surrey Lynn
75 Mrs. Anne Burt 32
76* Hugh Burt 15
77 Edward Burt 8
78 William Bassett 9 son of Mrs. Burt by a previous marriage
79 Edward Iresone 32 ??Buckenham,Lynn Co. Norfolk
80* Mrs. Elizabeth Ireson 27
81 Henry Collins 29 starchmaker Stepney Lynn
82 Mrs. Anne Collins 30
83 Henry Collins 5
84 John Collins 3
85 Margery Collins 1
86 Dennis Geere 30 Lynn Islesworth, Co.Mid-dlesex
87 Mrs. Elizabeth Geere 22
88 Elizabeth Geere 3
89 Sarah Geere 2
90 Elizabeth Tusolie 55
91 Anne Pankhurst 16 relative of Geere (cousin?)
92 Constance Woods 12
93 Thomas Brane 40 servant
94 Thomas Launder 22 servant
95* Edmund Freeman 34* gentleman Pulborough, Lynn Co.Sussex
96 Mrs. Elizabeth Freeman
97 Alice Freeman
98* Edward Freeman 15
99 Elizabeth Freeman 12
100 John Freeman 8
101* William Almy 34 South Kilworth,Co.Lynn Leicester
102* Mrs. Audrey Almy 32
103* Agnes Almy 8
104* Christopher Almy 3
105 Christopher Foster 32 husbandman Ewell,Co. Lynn Surrey
106 Mrs. Frances Foster 25
107 Rebecca Foster 5
108 Nathaniel Foster 2
109 Joseph Foster 1
110 Alice Stevens 22 sister of Mrs. Foster?
111 Thomas Stevens 12
112 John Deacon 28 blacksmith Lynn
113 Mrs. Alice Deacon 30
114 Hugh Alley 27 Stepney Lynn
115 Joshua Griffith 25 Stepney Lynn
116 Richard Woodman 9 Lynn
117 Ralph Wallis 40 husbandman Malden
118 George Wallis 15
119 John Allen 30 Haverhill, Suffolk Plymouth
120 Mrs. Anne Allen 30
121* Ezra Covell 15
122 Richard Adams 29 shoemaker Northampton, Salem Co. Northants
123 Mrs. Susan Adams 26
124 Henry Sumner Northampton Woburn
125 Elizabeth Sumner 18
126 John Harbert 23 shoemaker Northampton Salem county Northants
127 Richard Graves 23 Salem
128 John Cooke 17 Salem
129 Robert Driver 43* tailor Salem
130 John Freeman 35 Sudbury
131 Mrs. Mary Freeman 30*
132 John Freeman 9
133 Cicely Freeman 4
134 Jasper Arnold 40 Shoreditch, London
135 Mrs. Anne Arnold 39
136 William Potter 27 husbandman Watertown
137 Mrs. Frances Potter 26
138 Joseph Potter 6 mo
139* John Rookman 45
140 Mrs. Elizabeth Rookman 31
141* John Rookman 9
142 John Coke 27
143 Edward Fountaine 28
144 John Fox 35
145 Richard Fox 15
146 Thomas Freeman 24
147 Walter Gutsall 23*
148* John Holliock 28
149 Charles Jones 21 Little Minories, London
150 John Jones
151 William King 28
152 William Marshall 40
153 George Rum 25
154 Joseph Stanley 34
155 Joseph Terry 32
156* George Drewry 19 East Grinstead, Sussex
157 James Dodd 16
158 Thomas Goad 15
159 Peter Kettell 10
160 Edward Martin 19
161* William Paine 15
162* John Paine 14
163* John Stroud 15
164 Thomas Thompson 18
165 William Yates 14
166 Agnes Alcock 18
167 Lydia Browne Little Minories, London
168 Ruth Bushell 23
169 Margaret Devotion 9
170 Elizabeth Ellis 16
171 Elizabeth Harding 12 Little Minories, London
172 Susan Hathaway 34
173 Elinor Hillman 33
174 Mary Jones 30
175 Rebecca Price 14
176 Margaret Tucker 23
177 Joan Wall 19
178 Anne Williams www.immigrantships.net/v2/1600v2/abigail16351008.html
Joseph initially prospered in America. He acquired large tracts of land. Records indicate Joseph aquired the following property; "a reat lot on Roxbury bounds" purchased from William Hulbert, 8 acres on Sqantum Neck, 3 acres on "second marsh at Dorchester", 2 acres east towards Fox Point. 3 acres and 35 rods in "the Neck", and 3 acres 2 roods and ten rods in the cow pasture, also rights to undivided land commonly called New Grant. In Lynn Joseph Flood also received "upland and meadow, 60 acres and 10". All of this property would indicate that Joseph Flood was a well respected and important contributor to the colony.
Joseph Flood and his family have been described as ardent Quakers, or members of the Society of Friends. I disagree with this assertion, pointing to the above facts as evidence against such a claim. If Flood has been a Quaker prior to immigrating he would never have been allowed to own such vast amount of property in Massachusetts.
History of the colonies as it pertains to freeman, rights and property:
Initially, any male first entering into a colony, or just recently having become a member of one of the local churches, was formally not free. They were considered common. Such persons were never forced to work for another individual, per se, but their movements were carefully observed, and if they veered from the Puritanical ideal, they were asked to leave the colony. If they stayed or later returned to the colony, they were occasionally put to death.
There was an unstated probationary period that the prospective "freeman" needed to go through, and if he did pass this probationary period of time – usually one to two years – he was allowed his freedom.
A Freeman was said to be free of all debt, owing nothing to anyone except God Himself. Initially, all persons seeking to be free needed to take the Oath of a Freeman, in which they vowed to defend the Commonwealth and not to conspire to overthrow the government. The first handwritten version of the "Freeman's Oath" was made in 1634; it was printed by Stephen Daye in 1639 in the form of a broadside or single sheet of paper intended for posting in public places.
Freeman is a term which originated in 12th-century Europe and was common as an English or American Colonial expression in Puritan times. In the Bay Colony, a man had to be a member of the Church to be a freeman. In Colonial Plymouth, a man did not need to be a member of the Church, but he had to be elected to this privilege by the General Court. Being a freeman carried with it the right to vote, and by 1632 only freemen could vote in Plymouth.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freeman_(Colonial)
While there is no official documentation showing Joseph Flood had registered as a freeman his membership in the church at Dorchester and his large tracts of land strongly indicate this was the case. While Flood may have come to support the Society of Friends movement in the Colonies it is doubtful that one can call him an ardent supporter or claim he suffered "great persecution" for his faith.
The following is a brief history of the Society of Friends movement in the colonies. It is worth noting that our puritan founders, so set on leaving their own persecution behind and forming a society in which they could freely practice their beliefs were very quick to judge and persecute those who did not subscribe to their understanding of religious doctrine.
Beginnings in England
During and after the English Civil War (1642–1651) many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man named George Fox was dissatisfied by the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists. He had a revelation that there is one, even, Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition, and became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy. He had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, and Barbadospreaching and teaching them with the aim of converting them to his faith. The central theme of his Gospel message was that Christ has come to teach his people himself. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England.
In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to George Fox's autobiography, Bennet"was the first person that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord". It is thought that George Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing George Fox's admonition, but became widely accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers also described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Saints, Children of the Light, and Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, and the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680 (1.15% of the population of England and Wales). However the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and theConventicle Act 1664. This was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence (1687–1688) and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689.
One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualization of human relations, and "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe, 'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, who was the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and a pre-eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasized "holy conversation": speech and behavior that reflected piety, faith, and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for women; Fox and Fell viewed the Quaker mother as essential to developing "holy conversation" in her children and husband. Quaker women were also responsible for the spirituality of the larger community, coming together in "meetings" that regulated marriage and domestic behavior.
Emigration to North America
William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, as a young man
The persecution of Quakers in North America began as early as 1662, when Richard Waldron of Dover, New Hampshire tortured three Quaker women.
In search of economic opportunities and a more tolerant environment in which to build communities of "holy conversation," some Friends emigrated to what is now the Northeastern region of the United States in the early 1680s.
While in some areas like New England they continued to experience persecution, they were able to establish thriving communities in the Delaware Valley. The only two colonies that tolerated Quakers in this time period were Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, where Quakers established themselves politically. In Rhode Island, 36 governors in the first 100 years were Quakers. Pennsylvania was established by affluent Quaker William Penn in 1682, and as an American state run under Quaker principles. William Penn signed a peace treaty with Tammany, leader of the Delaware tribe, and other treaties between Quakers and native Americans followed.
Early Quakerism tolerated boisterous behavior that challenged conventional etiquette, but by 1700, while they continued to encourage spontaneity of expression, they no longer supported disruptive and unruly behavior. During the 18th century, Quakers entered the Quietist period in the history of their church, and they became more inward looking spiritually and less active in converting others. Marrying outside the Society was outlawed. Numbers dwindled, dropping to 19,800 in England and Wales by 1800 (0.21% of population), and 13,859 by 1860 (0.07% of population). The formal name "Religious Society of Friends", dates from this period, and was probably derived from the appellations "Friends of the Light" and "Friends of the Truth".
The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers, is a Protestant Christian tradition originating in mid-17th century England. Founded (traditionally) by George Fox, it adhered to religious teaching and practice that focused on living in accordance with the "Inward Light" (the inward apprehension of God, who is within everyone). Fox claimed that true believers could engage the risen Lord directly through the Holy Spirit without ministers, priests, or the sacraments. All are capable of experiencing the promise of Christ, enabling all to live in Christ's love. This belief influenced the position of the equality of women, a unique characteristic within Christianity in its time. Quaker meetings are often filled with silence because they are committed to waiting for God's presence in faith and patience. This religious movement was not received well in England and they in turn were persecuted for not going to services of the Church of England, refusing to tithe, and for going to Quaker services. While being persecuted in England, many Quakers were converting many people in America, especially in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. In fact, Pennsylvania was set up as a Quaker colony in which the state was supposed to be governed by Friends' principles, including religious toleration and pacifism. Historically, the Society of Friends has endorsed strong moral codes including the refusal to participate in war, the refusal to own slaves, and the elimination of many worldly structures. Socially, they were committed to various causes including women's suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and prison reform. Today there are many branches of Quakerism, some that hold more traditional Christian doctrines and others that are more liberal in their interpretations of these beliefs.
Read more: http://www.patheos.com/Library/Society-of-Friends-(Quaker).html#ixzz3NsBSauY9
Boston law against Quakers
At the end of 1658 the Massachusetts legislature, by a bare majority, enacted a law that every member of the sect of Quakers who was not an inhabitant of the colony but was found within its jurisdiction should be apprehended without warrant by any constable and imprisoned, and on conviction as a Quaker, should be banished upon pain of death, and that every inhabitant of the colony convicted of being a Quaker should be imprisoned for a month, and if obstinate in opinion should be banished on pain of death. Some Friends were arrested and expelled under this law.
AN ACT MADE AT A GENERAL COURT, HELD AT BOSTON, THE 20TH OF OCTOBER, 1658.
Sewell, William. The History of the Rise, Increase, and Progress, of the Christian People Called Quakers. Intermixed with Several Remarkable Occurrences. Written Originally in Low Dutch, and also Translated by Himself into English. A New Edition, to which is Appended, An Interesting Narrative of the Sufferings of William Moore, John Philly, and Richard Seller. In Two Volumes. Philadelphia: Uriah Hunt, 1832, Vol. I, pages 222-223.
This document is on The Quaker Writings Home Page.
[P222] Whereas there is a pernicious sect, (commonly called Quakers.) lately risen, who by word and writing have published and maintained many dangerous and horrid tenets, and do take upon them to change and alter the received laudable customs of our nation, in giving civil respect to equals, or reverence to superiors, whose actions tend to undermine the civil government, and also to destroy the order of the churches, by denying all established forms of worship, and by withdrawing from orderly church-fellowship, allowed and approved by all orthodox professors of the Truth, and instead thereof, and in opposition thereunto, frequently meeting themselves, insinuating themselves into the minds of the simple, or such as are least affected to the order and government of church and commonwealth, hereby divers of our inhabitants have been infected, notwithstanding all former laws, made upon tile experience of their arrogant and bold obtrusions, to disseminate their principles among us, prohibiting their coming in this jurisdiction, they have [P223] not been deterred from their impetuous attempts to undermine our peace, and hazard our ruin.
For prevention thereof, this court doth order and enact, that every person, or persons, of the cursed sect of the Quakers, who is not all inhabitant of, but is found within this jurisdiction, shall be apprehended without warrant, where no magistrate is at hand, by any constable, commissioner, or select man, and conveyed from constable to constable, to the next magistrate, who shall commit the said person to close prison, there to remain, without bail, unto the next court of assistants, where ~bey shall have a legal trial: and being convicted to be of the sect of the Quakers, shall be sentenced to be banished upon pain of death: and that every inhabitant of this jurisdiction, being convicted to be of the aforesaid sect, either by taking up, publishing, or defending the horrid opinions of the Quakers, or the stirring up mutiny, sedition, or rebellion against the government, or by taking up their absurd and destructive practices, viz. Denying civil respect to equals and superiors, and withdrawing from our church assemblies, and instead thereof frequent meetings of their own, in opposition to our church order; or by adhering to, or approving of any known Quaker, and the tenets and practices of the Quakers, that are opposite to the orthodox received opinions of the godly, and endeavouring to disaffect others to civil government, and church orders, or condemning the practice and proceedings of this court against the Quakers, manifesting thereby their complying with those, whose design is to overthrow the order established in church and state, every such person, upon conviction before the said court of assistants, in manner as aforesaid, shall be committed to close prison for one month, and then, unless they choose voluntarily to depart this jurisdiction, shall give bond for their good behaviour, and appear at the next court, where continuing obstinate, and refusing to retract and reform the aforesaid opinions, they shall be sentenced to banishment upon pain of death; and any one magistrate, upon information given him of any such person, shall cause him to be apprehended, and shall commit any such person to prison, according to his discretion, until he come to trial, as aforesaid. http://www.qhpress.org/quakerpages/qwhp/masslaw.htm
We see then that the Quaker movement started in England around 1648 and migrated to the colonies with dire consequences to Massachusetts citizens who listened to the preaching of Quaker missionaries. There is no argument that the puritan church held sway over the Massachusetts colonies in all matters, including attending church, who and when you would marry, who could vote or hold property,etc. On July 3 1646 Joseph Flood was arrested and jailed for" lying to the church". He was sent to stand trial at the Quarterly court session in Salem He received a fine and admonishment for this on August 4, 1646. His crime is stated as withdrawing from the ordinance of infant baptism.
Floods daughter; Elizabeth Coats, also stood trial that day, immediately following her father on the docket.
Elizabeth was admonished for "saying publicly and disturbing those who sat near, when Mr. Cobbet was preaching on infant baptism on a Sabath, that Christ was circumcised on the eighth day and that then he was not baptized"
It is very likely that Flood had been exposed to the Baptist movement while he was in England. The Baptists doctrine precludes infant baptism, favoring adult baptism because they believe Baptism is an important part of embracing Christ and Christian doctrines and must be entered into with full understanding, intent and commitment. Baptism is a covenant or a legal promise between man and God and as such a child would be able to enter into such a covenant as they lack understanding and commitment. Rather, modern Baptists hold a dedication ceremony with their children, through which the parent dedicates the child to God and promises to raise the child in such a way as to follow and embrace the doctrines of Christ and the church. The congregation also pledges to aid in the raising of the child in order to set examples and guide the child to Christ. as an open choice. That he had his own children baptized, as evidenced by documents showing Eleazer was baptized in Dorchester in 1638, indicates this thinking was relatively new for Flood.
It is not clear whether Flood was simply fined by the court, expelled from Massachusetts or executed. Daughter Elizabeth was admonished but this did not appear to impact husband Thomas Coats. In December of 1658 Thomas Coats sold land previously belonging to Joseph Flood, in Lynn Mass to Robert Rand. It has been suggested that Joseph, Jane and son Joseph Jr. had all died by this time, leaving Obediah Flood and Thomas Coats as Elizabeth's husband, to split the inheritance. No will has been located to verify this information.